Research & Development


RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS ARCHIVE

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS : Discipline of CHEMISTRY

Some novel Schiff base chemosensors (L1-L5) have been designed based on electron activating/ deactivating properties and characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Among those, the molecular probe having most electronegative group selectively sense Al3+ and Zn2+ by switching on the fluorescence in the adduct. The molecule L1 remains non-fluorescent in solution due to photo-induced electron transfer (PET), excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) and C=N bond isomerization. However, in presence of metal ion, chelation-induced enhanced fluorescence (CHEF) comes into play to inhibit all the processes and induce dramatic fluorescence increase in the adduct. The underlying mechanism and experimental observations have been corroborated with theoretical calculations. The chemosensor, L1 has been found to be effective to determine the concentration of the selective ions in real sample (drug analysis) and detect them in living cells through optical imaging at physiological pH.

 

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RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS : Discipline of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

High-speed broadband-communication has been playing a key role in present information era. Optical-fiber-communication provides high-speed and enormous-bandwidth. We are able to design and fabricate an ultra-compact photonic-device with low-loss, nano-scale optical-confinement, wide-bandwidth and low-dispersion. Our novel-approach of guiding and controlling the light at real nano-scale together with fabrication process developed for such devices makes our device ideal for high-speed broadband communication. The coupling of light with collective-oscillations of free-electrons at a metal-dielectric-interface is a potential candidate for nano-scale optical confinement beyond the diffraction-limit. We have utilized a high-index semiconductor-layer to offer a leaky-mode-confinement underneath the confinement-layer for the further reduction in the losses and for the tight-control in propagation-characteristics.

 

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RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS : Discipline of MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Our research endeavors include Surface Technologies, Coatings’ Tribology and Solid Lubrication. We primarily focus on the development of protective coatings with a suitable combination of hardness, thermal stability, wear and corrosion resistance and low friction characteristics following different methods and procedures. Hard coatings can be manufactured in-situ or ex-situ through laser surface alloying (LSA) or powder metallurgical routes. Manufacturing such hard metal matrix or ceramic matrix composite coatings can increase the potential of a metal surface in tribological applications. We are also involved in the development of electroless Ni plating, which is also one effective route to manufacture metal alloy or composite coatings with considerable superiority in terms of hardness and tribological properties and has relevance to aerospace, automotive, chemical and electrical industries. Presently, we are trying to find a way to incorporate lubricious phases into the electroless coating matrix with a view to improve its frictional properties.

 

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RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS : Discipline of PHYSICS

Lead-free, single phase, piezoelectric Na0.47Bi0.47Ba0.06Ti(1–x)VxO3 (0 < x < 0.03) polycrystalline powders were successfully synthesized using modified sol-gel method. Structural analysis of synchrotron radiation source powder x-ray diffraction data confirmed the rhombohedral R3c phase for unpoled samples at ambient temperature, due to a long-range order established in lattice system after poling. V+5 doping increases the rhombohedral distortion in unpoled and poled samples while it reduces the tetragonality in poled samples. Vibrational studies confirmed that unpoled samples have more lattice disorder compared to poled samples. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy measurement confirmed that Ti and V in 4+ and 5+ oxidation states for all poled and unpoled samples and their pre-edge feature increased after poling. Microstructure analysis showed that average grain size was found to decrease due to reduction in oxygen vacancies by the donor doping, from 5.6 6 0.5 lm to 1.0 6 0.2 lm for x ¼ 0 and 0.03, respectively.

 

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RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS : CENTRE OF ASTRONOMY

High fidelity image of ELAIS-N1 field using the GMRT telescope in India at 300-500 MHz band. The effect of state-of-the art radio algorithms are evident from the clarity and dynamic range of the image. This serves a good platform to study the nature of the astrophysical sources (radio jets, galaxies, etc) which act as the foreground to the redshifted 21cm signal from Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of Reionization.

 

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Bifunctional electrocatalytic/photocatalytic Cu-treated-δ-MnO2 nanostructures for enhanced water splitting activity

Birnessite (δ-MnO­­2) is of interest to scientists today, due to it’s natural occurrence inside and near water bodies1,2 and optimal band gap for utilisation of solar light3. Previous studies4,5 have not been able to establish significant photocurrents for use in electrochemical or light-assisted splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen, which could be used as inputs of gas for industrial processes and/or fuel cells. Our study reports a novel method of treating thin layers of δ-MnO­­2 (on conductive glass substrates) with Cu atoms using a facile, low cost, room temperature method. The coated substrates thus obtained display the highest photocurrent known so far (3.59 mA/cm2 at 0 V vs. RHE) when used as a cathode in a similar cell under solar-equivalent illumination of 1000 W/m2, and also deliver performance equivalent to a benchmark standard6 (10 mA/cm2) with a low applied voltage (1.67 V vs. RHE) when used as anode in an electrolytic cell for generation of oxygen from water. Our results establish solid ground for research into manganese based compounds, especially oxides, as viable, low-cost and abundant materials for use in electrolytic cells as well as photoelectrochemical generation of hydrogen from water.

 

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Understanding hypertension at the molecular level via multiscale simulations

Hypertension is a common chronic disorder that leads to stroke, myocardial infarction, renal failure, and congestive heart failure. Genetic approaches have demonstrated that mutation in many genes regulate renal salt reabsorption and causes variation in the blood pressure. The discovery of renal With No Lysine kinase (WNK) offers a new insight into the sodium, potassium, and blood pressure regulations and body fluid homeostasis. It has been found that mutations in WNK lead to Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII), also known as Gordons syndrome. Autophosphorylation at Ser382 of activation loop makes WNK1 kinase active. Herein, via molecular dynamics simulations, the effect of phosphorylation on the structure and dynamics of the kinase in the unphosphorylated (uWNK) and phosphorylated (pWNK) complexes with its ligand (WNK463) were studied.

 

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Transistor Functionality: Switch or Latch?

The primary function of a MOSFET for digital applications is to work as a switch. This switching capability of a transistor is one of the most fundamental attribute, which has been utilized for logic and memory applications. The switching action of transistor can be hindered if a physical process, such as impact ionization, occurs in an uncontrolled manner in a device. Impact ionization causes generation of extra electrons and holes, and if controlled, it can enhance switching through a ‘sharp’ almost ideal current transition from off-to-on state. Such type of sharp transition is referred to as sub-60 mV/decade switching. However, an unhindered impact ionization can lead to the transistor being driven in a latched state and current flowing through the device cannot be reduced despite lowering gate bias i.e. transistor no longer works as a switch but as a latch. While latch can find utility, it is not the case for logic applications. Studies carried out in this regard identifies possible reasons for the occurrence of latch in (a) nMOS and (b) pMOS junctionless devices (see figures), and ways to overcome the same while preserving the nearly ideal switching action.

 

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An Anthropocene Primer

For over two decades now, the concept of the Anthropocene has been developed as a framework for understanding environmental change that highlights human impact on earth systems. An important contribution to this scholarly endeavor has been An Anthropocene Primer edited by Jason M. Kelly and Fiona P. McDonald. This primer is an innovative open access, open peer review publication that guides learners through the complex concepts and debates related to the Anthropocene. Dr. Ananya Ghoshal, Assistant Professor of English, IIT Indore has co-authored An Anthropocene Primer. This work emerged from the “Anthropology of the Anthropocene: Structures, Theories, Practices” workshop hosted by the IUPUI Arts and Humanities Institute, Indianapolis which Dr.Ghoshal was a part of.

 

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Ongoing research in Composite Materials Group at IITI

Goal of our research group is to establish a thoroughly validated multiscale finite element methodology to predict the damage and stress-strain behavior of the fiber reinforced composite materials. Understanding the various factors that contribute to the damage initiation and propagation from the microscale to macroscale of the composites provides necessary information to design robust and damage tolerant composite structures. For the aforementioned purpose, as shown in the below figures, multiscale damage analysis is conducted on the composite materials across different length scales. Apart from establishing a state-of-the art composite materials and structures testing laboratory, long term goal of our research group is to design and manufacture the industrial scale composite structures.

 

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Quantification of Short-Range Order in Amorphous Materials

Amorphous materials are often said to have “short-range order” of crystallinity. This short-range is used very qualitatively and has little significance in understanding the nature of a material. A methodology has been proposed to quantify this crystallinity, similar to nanomaterials, using Raman spectroscopy. A theoretical line-shape, derived by considering the phonons under a confined system, appears to be explaining the observed Raman spectra from amorphous silicon. The line-shape is observed to be dependent on the abovementioned “short-range order” and hence can be used to quantify the same. Additionally a very simple relation between the order and the Raman peak position is reported.

 

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Sever Surface-Deformation of Alloys: Promising Approach to Enhance Properties

There are various engineering applications where surface must perform a job different from the bulk of a component. On many occasions, just by altering 1–2 % of the total thickness of the components, the properties enhance their performance considerably. In the last several decades, the importance of surface engineering has grown substantially. The list of applications requiring the manipulation of surface properties is unlimited, especially in the field of automobile, petrochemical, food processing, nuclear, etc. Sever plastic deformation (SPD) of surfaces is a promising approach to manipulate the surface microstructure and the properties. Friction stir surface processing (FSSP) and surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) techniques process the surface of metals and alloys in the solid state. Properties of the alloys can be manipulated by varying the process-parameters.

 

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New dimensions in nano-plasmonics

Metal coated ZnO system offers new horizons in the field of plasmonic and optoelectronic devices. Exciton-plasmon coupling, hot carrier generation through inter-band transitions, decay of surface plasmons into carriers and formation of barrier at the interface plays crucial role in the determination of enhancement ratio. Non-noble metals like Al, Cr provides economic and simple way to tune the UV emission and passivation of defect related emissions. Previously reported mechanisms behind the passivation of defect level emission were satisfactory for noble metals only. Interestingly, the involvement of hot carrier generation either through interband transitions and/or decay of surface plasmons can satisfactorily explain the passivation of defect level emissions and enhancement of UV emission for all categories of metals. UV and visble photodetectors were also fabricated and it was found that Al/Cr coating can significantly improve the device performance.

 

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Nano-hetero-architectures: prominent field electron emitters for displays

The high aspect ratio and sharp tip features of one-dimensional (1D) metal oxide nanostructures have engaged most of the researchers to explore their electronic/physical properties for the development of efficient functional devices for energy conversion and conservation. TiO2 is one of them but explored to a certain extent for field-emission displays despite its low work function of 3.9 to 4.5 eV. Moreover, the synthesis of pure brookite (β) phase is always challenging due to its metastable nature and commonly accompanied with the anatase and/or rutile phases. That is why numerous scientific reports are found on the utilization of rutile and anatase phases for a variety of applications including field emitters. High-temperature calcination and annealing processes were unsuccessful in yielding pure β phase.

 

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NVH and Fault Diagnosis

Noise Vibration and Harshness control of VECV truck: Under UAY project, an experimental study has been conducted using various commercially available sound absorbing materials to reduce the noise level inside the truck cabin. Results have shown that the noise level can be reduced by 20 dB inside the cabin. Dynamic modeling and fault diagnosis of planetary gear train: Under India-Tunisia project dynamic modelling of planetary gearbox has been done to understand the response of planetary gearbox. Advanced signal processing techniques have been proposed for gear fault diagnosis.

 

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Water soluble two-photon fluorescent organic probes for long-term imaging of lysosomes in live cells and tumor spheroids

The morphological alteration of lysosome is a powerful indicator of various pathological disorders. In this regards, we have designed and synthesized a new water soluble fluorescent Schiff-base ligand (L-lyso) containing two hydroxyl groups. L-lyso exhibits excellent two-photon properties with tracking of lysosomes in live cells as well as 3D tumor spheroids. Further, it can label lysosomes for more than 3 days. Thus, L-lyso has an edge over commercially available expensive LysoTracker probes and also over other reported probes in terms of its long-term imaging, water solubility and facile synthesis. For complete Article Click here. Recently, covered by Free Press Journal Click here

 

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Research Highlight from Humanities & Social Sciences

The research group on Innovation Studies focuses on issues related to R&D, patenting, technological progress, patent policy and economic growth. Recently, we have studied the impact of technological specialization on the export performance of countries including developing and developed. We use patenting data to measure the technological specialization of countries in different fields by calculating revealed technology advantage (RTA) index and revealed patent advantage (RPA) index. Figures 1 and 2 depict the RTA index in different fields of technology for selected developing and developed countries respectively. Evidently, the index value is less than 1 for developing countries and greater than 1 for most of the developed countries, affirming the technological leadership of such countries.

 

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Innovation in Cost-effective Energy Research at IIT Indore

Today, our nation is facing the vital challenges of rejuvenating our economy, strengthening our energy security, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Solid-state lighting (SSL) in terms of meeting cost-effective and environment- friendly white light emissions is an emerging technology with the potential to address all three of these challenges. SSL will mean greener homes and businesses that use substantially less electricity, making them less dependent on fossil fuels. Amongst other SSLs, blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on ZnO materials are critically significant in terms of realizing white luminescence with the highest luminous efficacy and color rendering index, while rendering the cost/efficiency value reduced substantially.

 

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Water Systems Management for a Changing Climate

In many regions of the world, population growth, and highly variable and a changing climate are increasing the likelihood of major water supply deficits. Under such non-stationarity, the present operational policies have been shown to struggle in managing water reservoirs. Most of the multi-purpose reservoirs do not explicitly use weather forecasts in their operational policies, despite their potential to improve service provisions significantly. This is particularly true for facilities that provide flood protection and water supply, since the potential flood damages are often too severe to accept the risk of inaccurate forecasts. What happens most of the time in such services is that operators must maintain empty storage capacity to mitigate flood risk, even if the system is currently in drought.

 

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Flexoelectricity in 2D Nanomaterials

Flexoelectricity phenomenon is the response of electric polarization to an applied strain gradient and is developed as a consequence of crystal symmetry in all materials. Symmetry breaking at surfaces and interfaces and the capability to undergo large strain gradients in nanoscale systems induces unusual forms of electromechanical coupling due to flexoelectricity phenomena. The recent study by Dr. Kundalwal showed that the presence of strain gradient in non-piezoelectric graphene sheet does not only affect the ionic positions, but also the asymmetric redistribution of the electron density, which induce strong polarization in the graphene sheet.

 

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Half metallicity in Fe-Ti-Sn Heusler alloys

The next generation memory devices are expected to be based on exploiting the “spin” aspect of the charge carriers in electronic transport. Until now, spin polarized electronic structure was claimed only for Co based Heusler alloys. Sayan Chaudhuri and Preeti Bhobe at IIT Indore have demonstrated a spin- polarized DOS in a Fe-based Heusler alloy, qualifying it to be a potential Half Metallic system. Fe 2 TiSn has high probability of anti-site disorder between Fe and Ti, which controls the ground state magnetic and transport properties. This group developed a method to decrease this anti disorder by substituting higher electronegative atom at Sn site

 

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Evaluating deformation heterogeneity of Magnesium using digital image correlation
from Mechanics of Materials (MoM) group at MEMS, IIT Indore

Magnesium and it alloys are considered as potential replacement of steel and Al alloys owing to their high specific properties. While their density is approximately 1/5th of steel and 2/3rd of Al alloys, the strengths are comparable. Thought they offer excellent die-casting properties, their widespread applicability is limited by the poor formability which is attributed to their low symmetric hexagonal close packed (HCP) crystal structure. HCP materials, at room temperatures, do not contain five independent slip systems needed for homogenous plastic deformation. Hence twinning, besides slip, plays a dominant role in the plastic deformation which makes the deformation highly inhomogeneous. Inorder to develop new Mg based alloys, it is important to characterize and quantify the heterogenous nature of deformation.

 

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Research Highlight from Centre of Astronomy

Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are known to show presence of powerful jets. These jets are essentially relativistic and collimated beam of plasma that are threaded with magnetic fields. In the figure, 3D image of simulated jet material ejected from that central black hole of AGN is shown (in color) along with toroidally dominated magnetic fields (grey lines). The non-axisymmetric instabilities leading to turbulent features and formation of bow-shaped lobes are evident from the simulations.

 

 

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SINGLE FLUOROPHORE AND RATIOMETRIC BIOSENSORS FOR PH AND UREA FOR DIAGNOSIS OF KIDNEY DISEASES
Dr. Abhijeet Joshi’s TheraSens Laboratory

TheraSens Lab is working in the domains of biomedical engineering and pharmaceutical sciences. In a recent research report published in Nature Scientific Reports the group along with a research group at IIT Bombay has developed and tested a Fluorescein-iso-thiocyanate-dextran (FD)/FD-Urease encapsulated alginate micro-carriers as single/ratiometric fluorophore based fluorescent biosensors for detecting pH and urea in urine samples. Layer-by-layer self-assembly of polyallyl amine hydrochloride (PAH) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) in conjunction with Tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chloride (RuBpy) over FD/FD-Urease loaded alginate microspheres aids in developing ratiometric sensors for pH and urea. FD and RuBpy function as indicator and reference fluorophores, respectively.

 

 

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Improved Short Channel Performance for 3D NAND Flash Memory

Recently, the demand for 3D NAND flash memory has grown drastically due to its massive application in handhold devices such as smart phones, tablets etc. Further, to satisfy the present market need and to achieve desired compactness, flash memory devices are scaling to 1-X- nm generation. This scaling produces short channel effects such as threshold voltage roll- off, Drain Induced Barrier Lowering (DIBL) and Sub-threshold Swing (SS) in the flash memory device to affect the 3D NAND flash memory performance. Hence, investigation of new developments in the designing methods of 3D NAND flash memory to lower the short channel effects in flash devices will be of prime importance for future generation.

 

 

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Research Highlight from Discipline of Physics

The realization that multiple relations may co-exist among the same set of nodes has led to a boost in the activities of real world modeling as multiplex networks. In this framework, the nodes are distributed in different layers according to the type of the association they share. The prime objective of multiplex networks is to study multiple levels of interactions where functions of one layer get affected by the properties of other layers. Recently, the emergence of Chimeras has been demonstrated for multiplex networks. The Chimera state represents a hybrid dynamical state with co-existing coherence and incoherence in an identical network with symmetric coupling environment. We have shown that by tuning the coupling density or connection architecture or introducing a delay in one layer, we can enhance or suppress the chimera states in another layer.

 

 

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Novel in synthesizing spherical nanoparticles through Laser micro-grooving on the rotating target of NiTi using Underwater Solid State Nd: YAG Laser Ablation Technique

Nanomaterials have become increasingly popular, promising a breakthrough in the development of novel methods in bio-sensing, medical diagnostics, surface plasmonics (photo-voltaics applications), therapeutics, cosmetics coatings, etc. under water Laser assisted ablation can offer novel opportunities to solve the toxicity problem caused by contamination with chemical precursors or additives in chemical synthesis procedures. However, the mechanism of nanoparticles formation is still not well understood and challenges remain in size control and productivity.

 

 

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Research Highlights from Dr. Shirage and Group

Advanced Functional Materials Group in Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, lead by Dr. Parasharam Shirage, working on various aspects of materials for technological applications like solar cells, supercapacitors, gas sensors, etc. We have contributed in basic science and engineering of the materials. One of these contribution is origin of room temperature ferromagnetisms in ZnO.

 

 

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Research Highlights from Dr. Ashok Kumar’s Research Group

Real time data is invariably noise, contaminated, and does not always conform to a fixed model. Robust estimation involves a key re-weighting procedure on the likelihood score equation which enables us to control the effect of outliers while retaining the efficiency of the estimators to a larger extent. This re- weighting induces an information measure, which is generally an extension of the well-known Kullback- Leibler divergence (which is known to be associated with the maximum likelihood estimation). We study various estimation procedures, the information measures associated with them, and their efficacies.

 

 

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Research Highlights from Dr. Kiran Bala’s Research Group

In Biofuels Research lab., we have been working with various green and blue-green algae species indigenously isolated from contaminated sites. These algae species are being explored for their biomass and lipid profile in context to biodiesel generation, carbon fixation potential and wastewater treatment. Selecting tolerant microalgal strains and further enhancing their ability to tolerate higher concentrations of contaminant by gradually increasing the concentration is very important in making the overall process efficient and economically feasible. Main goal is combining the process of algal biodiesel development with waste water treatment and greenhouse gas fixation. The purified wastewater can be channelled back into receiving water bodies, while the biodiesel can fuel buses, construction vehicles and farm equipment simultaneously handling air pollution issues.

 

 

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Theoretical and Experimental Study on Heat Transfer Characteristics of Normally Impinging Two Dimensional Jets on a Hot Surface

Impinging air jets have been used in various industrial applications including the drying of paper, cooling of gas turbine blades and cooling of electronic components. Here, an attempt has been made to propose a theoretical model to predict the heat transfer characteristics of two dimensional impinging jets on a hot surface. Energy integral method is used to obtain the solution. Based on the analysis a generalized expression for Nusselt number is obtained involving various parameters such as: nozzle to plate distance, Prandtl number, Reynolds number and modeling parameter k. Tests have been carried out by using a two dimensional nozzle with length to diameter ratio of 70.

 

 

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Relaxation in Pure BaTiO3 & NiO Excellent Electron Emittor3

Exciting material properties: Recent Results from Material Research Laboratory IIT Indore

Mr. Vikash Mishra et. al. from material research laboratory@IIT Indore; have shown relaxation in pure BaTiO3 possibly for the first time using very simple temperature and time dependent optical spectroscopy. The relaxation in electronic states; having disorder energy of the order of 0.08eV is clearly visible in Urbach energy plot (Journal of Applied Physics 122, 065105).

Mr. Suryakant Mishra et. al. recently produce excellent electron emitter. For this purpose Mr. S. Mishra configured NiO in nano sheets (http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C7TC01949A).

 

 

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Bounds for Eigenvalues of Matrix Polynomials over Quaternion Division Algebra

Localization theorems are discussed for the left and right eigenvalues of block quaternionic matrices. Basic definitions of the left and right eigenvalues of quaternionic matrices are extended to quaternionic matrix polynomials. Furthermore, bounds on the absolute values of the left and right eigenvalues of quaternionic matrix polynomials are devised and illustrated for the matrix p norm, where p=1,2,∞,F. The above generalizes the bounds on the absolute values of the eigenvalues of complex matrix polynomials, which give sharper bounds to the bounds developed in [LAA, 358, pp. 5–22 2003] for the case of 1, 2, and ∞ matrix norms.

 

 

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Nanotechnology and Biophotonic approaches in Diagnostics and Therapeutics (Dr. Sharad Gupta’s BPBE research group

BioPhysics and Biomedical Engineering (BPBE) research group is an interdisciplinary group in the Centre for BioSciences and Biomedical Engineering, at Indian Institute of technology, Indore. The major areas of research in BPBE research group is focused at developing novel nanoparticles for therapy and diagnosis, development of biophotonics tools, and biomaterials for regenerative medicine and therapy.
The success of cancer treatment is completely dependent on disease stage of the diagnosis “Earlier the diagnosis, higher the success rate”. Fluorescence imaging is one of the techniques which can diagnose cancer at earlier stage with high precision

 

 

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High-speed Nanophotonic Coupler: A Low-loss Platform for Optical Interconnects

A nano- scale on-chip photonic coupler with low loss is a promising candidate for optical interconnects. In this work a low-loss and high-speed nanophotonic vertical coupler with ultra-short coupling length based on hybrid plasmonic (HP) waveguide with a lateral sub-wavelength grating (LSG) is proposed. High-speed coupling evident from an ultra-short coupling length of 0.461 μm is achieved through the lateral resonances in the sub-wavelength grating.The combined effect of LSG and the metal layer sandwiched between the coupling dielectric-regions makes it possible to realize efficient coupling and low-loss guiding of hybrid modes with a propagation lengths of 123 and 53 μm, respectively, for odd and even modes.

 

 

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Shape memory alloy based adaptive composite structure for aircraft and automobile

Minor deflection in structure with conventional technologies requires expensive heavy motors, hydraulics and many moving parts. Nevertheless, using SMA embedded adaptive smart structures, deflection can be easily attained and it is simple in design, light weight, no moving parts and scalable. The ongoing employment of Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) elements as actuators due to SMA undergo a reversible phase transformation from martensite to austenite as temperature increases. This transformation lead to shape recovery and associate recovery. When a SMA is heated, a solid state phase transformation takes place from martensite to austenite phase which is responsible for shape change or actuation.

 

 

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Lightweight cipher implementations for resilience against side-channel analysis

Our present research focuses on emerging aspects of hardware security, such as side-channel analysis of cryptographic implementations and logic synthesis techniques for improved resilience against such attacks.
The current research aims to propose implementations that thwart power-based side-channel analysis of lightweight block ciphers such as Simon and Hummingbird ciphers. Power analysis is one of the side-channel vulnerabilities that has been exploited by the cryptographic research community to extract secret information embedded in resource-constrained hardware devices. We have proposed construction of S-boxes and other block cipher primitives that have improved resilience against power analysis attacks.

 

 

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Research Highlights from Dr. Sunil Kumar’s Solid State Ionics Lab

Piezoelectric materials are technologically relevant owing to their ability to convert the mechanical input into an electrical output and vice-versa. These materials have been in commercial use for several decades and in a wide range of devices, such as piezoelectric-operated actuators and motors ultra-small- scale precision motion, sensors, transducers, fuel injectors used in automotive applications, micropumps, piezo valves, etc. A recently published report estimated the global market for piezoelectric operated devices to reach INR 1080 billion by 2018 showing a compound annual growth of 7.7% per year.

 

 

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Research Highlights from Dr. Tanveer’s OPTIMAL Research Group

The OPTIMAL research group focusses on early detection of Alzheimer’s disease using machine learning techniques. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of cognitive disability and dementia. It is a major public health problem, with 35 million people affected today. This number is expected to reach 115 million cases in 2050. The cost of care is evaluated to approximately USD 600 billion worldwide. Early and accurate diagnosis of AD is crucial in order to enhance care for patients and for the development of new treatments. However, AD is currently under-diagnosed and most patients have not received a precise diagnosis.

 

 

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Title : Research Highlights from Discipline of Electrical Engineering

Wireless communication is one of the most successful technologies shaping our daily lives. Since the invention of wireless communication systems, it has become an essential part of our daily life. Apart from text and voice communication services, today with the evolution and development of technology, it is being used for several other applications such as online gaming, video conferencing, online TV and many more. These modern applications require a large amount of data traffic over wireless channel. Moreover, the number of wireless users has also increased enormously over the past decade. The fast growing data needs within limited resources motivated researchers to develop new technologies for future generation (5G) wireless systems.

 

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Title : Research Highlights from Dr. Ruchi Sharma’s Research Group

In light of the introduction of product patent regime in India to comply with TRIPs agreement, we evaluate the impact of patenting by pharmaceutical firms on its’ monopoly power. We find that foreign firms are involved in extensive patenting of both products and processes in India though R&D conducted in the host country is minimal and in some cases declining as well [Figure 1 and Table 1]. Such firms in case of patented drugs are charging high price, are not manufacturing these drugs in India and are mostly importing them. We also find that both product and process patents have positive and significant impact on the monopoly power of foreign firms. Evidently, India has to be prepared for high drug prices in future under new product patent regime.

 

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Title : Effect of Shear Work on the Heat Transfer Characteristics of Gaseous Flows in Microchannels

The heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of gaseous fluids through microdevices play an important role in various engineering and scientific applications including micro-pumps, cooling of electronic equipments, bio-chemical devices and micro-sensors. In microdevices, the micro length scale plays a vital role and affects the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics significantly. In such cases, the hydraulic dimension of the device is of the same order compared to the mean free path of the molecules of flowing fluid. The fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics at microscale is different compared to the macro-scale because of the velocity slip and temperature jump at the wall and does not obey the classical continuum approach in the slip regime. Various parameters, namely, rarefaction, viscous dissipation, compressibility, property variation, thermal creep, shear work and axial conduction can affect either separately or simultaneously the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics.

 

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Title : Bounds for Eigenvalues of Matrix Polynomials over Quaternion Division Algebra

Localization theorems are discussed for the left and right eigenvalues of block quaternionic matrices. Basic definitions of the left and right eigenvalues of quaternionic matrices are extended to quaternionic matrix polynomials. Furthermore, bounds on the absolute values of the left and right eigenvalues of quaternionic matrix polynomials are devised and illustrated for the matrix p norm, where p=1,2,∞,F. The above generalizes the bounds on the absolute values of the eigenvalues of complex matrix polynomials, which give sharper bounds to the bounds developed in [LAA, 358, pp. 5–22 2003] for the case of 1, 2, and ∞ matrix norms.

 

 

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Title : Wet-chemical approach to fabricate visible-near infrared light harvesting photoelectrodes

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is an ecofriendly and safer process to generate hydrogen and have good potential to resolve energy challenges by producing an environmental friendly fuel. We are exploring various earth abundant materials to develop photoelectrode for solar driven water splitting.The ZnO, TiO2, SnO2, CuO, Cu2O nanostructures, α-Fe2O3, graphene quantum dots, CZTS nano-crystal are few examples, to apply in PEC water.The aim of our research is to harvest the wide solar spectrum in whole UV to NIR wavelength range.

 

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Title : Targeting G-quadruplex for cancer

In structural biology lab, we have been working on elucidation of structural and molecular basis of Drug-Nucleic acid interactions. In this context we have studied the interaction of small molecules of natural origin readily available in human diets with G-quadruplex DNA formed at various regions of human genome like telomeric DNA, promoter region of various proto-oncogenes such as c-myc, c-kit21, bcl2, etc. These genes are known to be involved in development and progression of various cancers. First of all, we have studied the interaction of flavonoids with G-quadruplex DNA formed by human telomeric DNA sequence. By employing detailed biophysical techniques like Circular Dichroism (CD), UV-Visible, steady state, and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, we have probed these interactions. Further, the structural basis of this interaction and we have reported the first solution structure of the complex formed by Quercetin and G-quadruplex DNA formed by human telomeric DNA sequence. Furthermore, we have explored the mechanism for anticancer activity of flavonoids.

 

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Research highlights from Discipline of Chemistry

 

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SIGNAL ANALYSIS RESEARCH LAB

In Signal Analysis Research Lab, we have been working in the broad area of biomedical signal processing based on the new nonlinear and non-stationary signal analysis techniques. We have proposed new methods for analysis and classification of normal and epileptic seizure electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, these methods can be applied for real-time detection of epileptic seizures from EEG signals.  We have also proposed new approaches for localization of epileptic focus, classification of sleep stages and human emotions, and detection of alcoholism using EEG signals. The heart rate variability (HRV) signals obtained from electrocardiogram (ECG) have been used to develop new methods for diagnosis of the patients suffering from coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes. We have proposed new techniques for analysis and classification of heart valve disorders based on phonocardiogram (PCG) signals.  

 

 

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STABILIZATION OF PHASES PRESENT IN PLASMA SPRAYED ALUMINA COATINGS

Stabilization of phases present in atmospheric plasma sprayed alumina coatings applied on steel substrates is possible by adding low quantity of Chromia to the alumina feedstock. Quantification of the different phases present in the coatings can be performed by subsequent use of Rietveld refinement method. Surface morphology, microhardness and wear behavior of the different coatings are also observed. Rietveld analyses performed on coatings ensure the stabilization of metastable phases present in the alumina coatings by chromia addition. Significant increase of the α-alumina and (AlxCr¬1-x)2O3 content is observed in alumina coatings with 4wt.% chromia content. This is supported by the improved hardness and wear resistant properties of the alumina coatings containing 4wt.% chromia in it. The minimum surface roughness of the coating is also observed for alumina coatings with 4wt.% chromia content among all the alumina coatings with different chromia content.

 

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DISCOVERY OF “FANO SCATTERING”

We have discovered a new phenomenon, named as "Fano scattering", which is possible in nanomaterials in low-frequency regime (a few wavenumbers). Suitably fabricated silicon nanostructures (Si NSs) were used as the physical system to harvest low-frequency acoustic phonons which can interact with an intraband quasi-continuum to give rise to Fano interaction as observed through Raman spectroscopy. A size-dependent asymmetry in Raman line shapes at low-frequency for Si NSs has been observed. The experimental asymmetry of Raman line shape has been explained by a theoretical model that incorporates the quantum-confined phonons as well as the contribution of intraband quasi-continuum. Upto now there was no any direct way to extract information about non-radiative transitions which play very important role at nanoscale and define the characteristics of nanomaterial.

 

 

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Title: Anomaly Detection in VoIP Systems

Session Initiation Protocol is a text-based protocol and is vulnerable to a range of denial of service (DoS) attacks. These DoS attacks can render the SIP servers/SIP proxy servers unusable by depleting memory and CPU time. In this work, we consider two types of DoS attacks, namely, flooding attacks and coordinated attacks for detection. Flooding attacks affect both stateless and stateful SIP servers while coordinated attacks affect stateful SIP servers. We model the SIP operation as discrete event system(DES) and design a new state transition machine, which we name as probabilistic counting deterministic timed automata (PCDTA) to describe the behaviour of SIP operations. We also identify different types of anomalies that can occur in a DES model, which appear in the form of illegal transitions, violating timing constraints, and appear in number which is otherwise not seen. Subsequently, we map various DoS attacks in SIP to a type of anomaly in DES. PCDTA can learn probabilities of various transitions and timings delay from a set of known non-malicious training sequences. A trained PCDTA can detect anomalies, and hence various DoS attacks in SIP. 

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Title: Improving the heat transfer characteristics of metal hydride beds without any negative effect on hydrogen absorption and desorption rates .

An experimental set was developed for measuring Effective Thermal Conductivity (ETC) of metal hydride beds. Two different types of metal hydride pellets were developed. Graphite flakes were mixed with La0.8Ce0.2Ni5 hydride for the first type of pellets. While in the second type, an augmentation structure made with copper wire mesh was embedded with the mixture of La0.8Ce0.2Ni5 hydride and graphite flakes. The ETC and hydrogen absorption and desorption rates of all the three types of La0.8Ce0.2Ni5 hydride beds namely, with loose MH powder (LMHP), pellets of MH powder and graphite fibers (PMHGF), and pellets of MH, graphite fibers with embedded copper wire mesh structure (PMHGFCu) were measured. The proposed structure are found promising to augment the ETC without loss in absorption and desorption rates.

 

 

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Title: Doped LaGaO3: Good White Light Emitters and Room Temperature Low Field Magneto-dielectric Materials

The search for the new material(s) for various electronic applications have dominated the research worldwide particularly after the development of silicon based tiny integrated circuits and BaTiO3 based tiny capacitors. During last five decades the nature of electronic devices has witnessed huge changes. Very small as well as energy efficient electronic devices are replacing the conventional electronic circuit elements. The white light emitting diode, spin valves devices are some of these real examples.
The material research laboratory of IIT Indore is engaged in the development of new materials for various electronic applications. Recently this laboratory has successfully demonstrated the potentials of Fe and Mn doped LaGaO3 as a white light emitting material and as a room temperature low field magneto-dielectric material respectively.

 

 

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Title: Performance Investigations on Mechanical Design and Motion Control of Planar Parallel Manipulators
me

This research also involves the study of quantitative estimation of error in parallel manipulators due to inaccurate placement of actuators, misalignments and sensor set point errors. Here we are studying a new family of manipulators which are having U-shaped square base and having three serial kinematic chains. Their performances in different configurations are studied numerically and experimentally, it helps to find out the best configurations among them in presence of errors. For perform trajectory tracking operations in manipulators having errors, task space based motion control schemes are studied and developed in this work. These planar parallel manipulators have a potential to serve in the field of manufacturing, positioning, material handling, physiotherapy etc. One of the potential applications of these manipulators is in the field of lower limb rehabilitation.

 

 

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Title: Controlling the electronic state by strain and Mn-doping in epitaxial thin films of NdNiO3
phy

RNiO3 (R= Rear earth ion) compounds compounds have applications in switches, sensors, photovoltaics and multiferroic devices.
This system shows a temperature driven first order metal to insulator transition, which is very sensitive to the external perturbations. We have studied a combined effect of Mn-doping and epitaxial strain on the metallic as well as insulating state of NdNiO3 thin films. The Reciprocal space maps show that undoped thin film is epitaxial and the epitaxy is maintained till higer Mn-doping. Our study reveals that a slight increase in the tensile strain via lattice mismatch can result in an order of magnitude difference in the resistivity for pure NdNiO3 thin films1,2. Moreover, the temperature dependent resistivity curves of pure NdNiO3 films demonstrate that the tensile strain increases the resistivity in a similar way for all temperatures. However, a crossover of resistivity curves is observed due to competing effects of doping and strain.

 

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Title: Structural Insight into the interaction of Flavonoids with secondary structures of DNA
bsbe

The interaction of the Flavonoids with human telomeric DNA sequence and promoter region of human oncogene that readily forms secondary structure was assessed by employing detailed biophysical techniques like CD spectroscopy, UV-Vis and steady state and time resolved fluorescence studies. The structural basis of the interaction was deduced by employing NMR spectroscopy that revealed that flavonoids bind to DNA and stabilize its structure. We have reported the first solution structure of this complex and deduced the mechanism for anticancer activity of flavonoids. It inhibits the cell growth by inducing apoptosis and it also down-regulates the gene expression in cancer cells upon binding. Our study highlights the potential of flavonoids as useful candidates for anti-cancer therapeutics by regulating DNA secondary structures.

 

 

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Title : Organometallics And Nanotech Catalysis Group
chem

Biomass to bio-fuel: Highly efficient ruthenium complexes based molecular catalysts were designed and synthesised for water based one-pot catalytic transformation of biomass components, such 2-furfural (furfural), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) and 5-methyl-2-furfural (5-MF) highly value added fine chemicals, such as levulinic acid (LA), and diketones, for bio-fuel application. Under a tandem catalytic condition, 1 mol% of Ru catalyst along with formic acid resulted in complete conversion of furfural to LA with high selectivity at 80 C. Experiments performed using structural analogues of the active catalyst inferred a structure–activity relationship for the observed superior catalytic activity of the studied Ru catalyst. Furthermore, due to the high aqueous solubility of the studied complexes, high recyclability, up to 4 catalytic runs, was achieved without any significant loss of activity.

 

 

 

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Title : Crystal Structure and Electronic Properties correlation in Functional Materials
physice

A simple result with deep implication in the field of spin-based electronics materials has recently been demonstrated by a group of researchers at IIT Indore. Here, the correlation between the magnetic ordering and local structural disorder in the unusual magnetic semiconductor, CdCr2Se4, has been investigated. These results are initial steps towards exploring the domain of spintronics and half-metallicity in Spinel Chalogenides.

 

CdCr2Se4 orders magnetically below TC ∼130K. The magnetic ordering is believed to result from strong competition between the direct Cr–Cr spin couplings and the Cr–Se–Cr exchange interactions.

 

 

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Title: Can dark matter be responsible to save the Universe ?
phy

The recent discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN has made the fundamental particles even more interesting, completing the quest for discovering all particles embodied in the standard model(SM) of particle physics. However, the measured Higgs mass indicates that the Universe is resting in a metastable vacuum, waiting to make a transition to a much deeper vacuum in a distant future, if SM is valid up to the Planck scale. Such a transition will release an enormous amount of energy and destroy the present Universe. However, several astrophysical evidences of existence of dark matter suggest SM needs extension. At IIT Indore, Najimuddin Khan and Subhendu Rakshit have explored the idea that dark matter can help save the Universe from such a horrendous fate. Citing the example of two popular models of dark matter, where, the dark matter consists of scalar particles arising from extending SM by a gauge singlet or doublet scalars, the authors examined the parameter space of these models that imply stability of the Universe and explain the observed relic abundance of dark matter as well. The results were published in two Physical Review D research articles.

 

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Title: Design and development of Softcomputing and Data mining algorithms for handling Big Data
cse
The growing births of new intelligent system architectures are often due to the multi strategy learning and adaptation of advanced soft computing/data mining techniques in emerging challenges such as social media networks, genomics applications.  Such problems need to address the issues of Big Data for classification, clustering and feature selection, feature extraction.  Big data computing needs advanced technologies or methods to solve the issues of computational time to extract valuable information, in a realistic and practical time frame without compromising the models quality.  Therefore, the need for developing intelligent scalable algorithms has been felt, which will be able to perform classification, clustering and feature selection in optimal sense after adjusting their parameters in an adaptive way to accomplish faster solutions to address Big Data. Currently collaborating with Soyabean Research centre Indore and CDAC, Bioinformatics group Pune.

 

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Title: Probing magnetohydrodynamic turbulence through radio observations of galaxy cluster mergers
astronomy

A false-colour Xray image from the Chandra X-Ray observatory of the Bullet Cluster. Superposed are contours of the pressure/temperature distribution in the gas, determined from the Sunyaev-Zeldovich observations done by a team led by Dr. Siddharth Malu, with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The hottest gas is seen by these S-Z observations (contours) is displaced from the densest regions traced by the X-ray emission (colours). This was the first time a high-resolution image of a merging/colliding system was done at 18 GHz, and reveals rich structure in pressure that has led to a re-examination of galaxy cluster collision models.

 

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Title: Numerical Methods for nonlinear Differential Equations
math

Developing efficient numerical methods for various types of differential equations is one of the important problems in science and technology. Recently numerical methods for partial differential equation based on wavelets and finite difference method studied by many researchers. Dr. Vijesh and Mr. Harish Kumar developed a new numerical method based on wavelet for semi-linear parabolic differential equation with systematic convergence analysis. The proposed scheme produces higher accuracy with less number of grid points compared with methods available in the recent literature. [Ref: APPL. MATH. COMP., 266, 1163—1176]. Dr. Vijesh, Ms. Rupsha Roy and G. Chandhini proposed a modification in the quasilinearization iterative scheme for proving the existence and uniqueness result for fractional order differential equations. This modification reduces the computational complexity considerably for class of fractional order differential equations. [Ref: APPL. MATH. COMP., 266, 687--697].

 

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Title: Single Crystal Growth and Understanding the Mechanism of Superconductivity
na

Superconductivity is the field of an enormous interest with more than century ago discovery, due to potential applications of the superconductors from health to transport and ongoing debate of many decades for understanding the mechanism of superconductivity. Dr. Shirage and his group at IIT Indore, actively engaged in understanding the mechanism of superconductivity by growing sizably large single crystals and studying the physical properties. They study electro-magnetic properties, vortex mechanism [Nature Scientific Reports 5(2015) 10613], isotope effect, etc to understand the mechanism of superconductivity. Dr. Shirage is renowned to invent the inverse isotope effect to understand the mechanism iron based high Tc superconductors [PRL 105(2010)037004].

 

Figure 1 Experimentally determined HC2 from the measurement of R-T on the single crystalline NbSe2 with and without defects. Inset shows the NbSe2 single crystal grown (dimensions 18 mm x 10 mm x 1 mm).

 

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Title: Structural Insights Reveal the Dynamics of the Repeating r(CAG) Transcript Found in Huntington’s Disease (HD) and Spinocerebellar Ataxias (SCAs)
na

Dr. Amit and his group is working on the structural and drug discovery aspect to target neurological diseases and cancer. Recently, article entitled “Structural Insights Reveal the Dynamics of the Repeating r(CAG) Transcript Found in Huntington’s Disease (HD) and Spinocerebellar Ataxias (SCAs)” (PlosOne, 2015) by Tawani and Kumar describes the structure and dynamics of the RNA trinulceotide repeat CAG. These trinucleotide repeats when extended beyond a certain limit, lead to the neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease (HD) and Spinocerebellar Ataxias (SCAs). These repeats form special structure that sequesters the important proteins that lead to diseased condition. In order to explore the role of RNA structures in pathogenesis, this group has addressed the understanding of conformational flexibility and dynamic behavior of such RNA containing trinucleotide repeats. The study shows the dynamic nature of lxl nucleotide AA internal loops by crystal structure as well as by solution structure. The non-canonical pairing of adenine in 5´-CAG/3´-GAC motif samples in different syn and anti-conformations. This study reveals that small molecules or protein interactions proceed through conformational selection, which will be useful in understanding the potential structural consequences of ligand binding to r(CAG) repeats.

 

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Title: Detection and Prevention of DDoS Attack on Cloud Environment
na

Denial-of-service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks are two major security restrictions for functionality and availability of Cloud services. In DoS attack, an intruder tries to prevent authorized users from retrieving the information or services. On the other hand, DDoS is a collaborative attack on functionality and availability of a victim cloud through multiple corrupted systems. Hence, DDoS attack is a complex security challenge for growth of Cloud Computing.

 

Third Party Auditor (TPA) based approach has been developed to detect and prevent the DDoS attack in Cloud environment. In this approach, a workstation is considered as a TPA for observation of the all packets reached to cloud servers and it works as an independent and trustworthy entity which logs all legitimate as well as malicious packets on the behalf of all cloud servers. Figure shows the architecture of proposed Cloud Shield. The Cloud Shield is able to traceback the origin of the attack based on Dempster Shafer Theory (DST) to analyze all packets.

 

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